INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY <p><strong><span style="color: #5040ae;">SCOPE OF JOURNAL</span><br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; International Journal of Scientific Study (IJSS) is an open-access, freely accessible, online monthly journal publishing research articles after full peer review and aims to publish scientifically sound research articles. Journal publishes articles of&nbsp;</span>all specialties.<br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; IJSS tries to inform its readers about latest research developments and key issues from all disciplines. 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Situs ambiguous is a congenital anomaly in which the major visceral organs are<br>distributed abnormally within the chest and abdomen. We report a case of a 44-year-old lady, presented to our casualty<br>department with waxing and waning pain abdomen and vomiting. Patient’s contrast-enhanced computed tomography<br>(CECT) was done which had features of left isomerism of heterotaxy syndrome. Our case describes about the findings of<br>situs ambiguous with polysplenia which is a rare entity. Early diagnosis by appropriate imaging modality results in reduction<br>of the fatal consequences.</p> Subham Basu Subhajit Saha Subhasish Bakshi Subhasree Mukhopadhyay Partha S Sarkar Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 1 4 Invasive Paranasal and Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Post-COVID Patient with Diabetes <p>COVID-positive patients and those recovering from COVID affliction are more susceptible to fungal infections. It is especially<br>true in patients who are diabetic, on prolonged glucocorticoid medications and transplant patients. In critically ill patients,<br>invasive fungal infections have a bad prognosis resulting in grim figures of morbidity. Glucocorticoid medications may aggravate<br>hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes which present a favorable ground for fungal infections. In this case, we have come<br>across a patient who has a long-standing history of diabetes. She has been suffering from invasive pulmonary aspergillosis<br>while recovering from COVID-19. The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is difficult using clinical criteria, thus imaging modalities<br>are the mainstay for diagnosis. Intravenous voriconazole (400 mg BD tapered down to 200 mg) has been used to treat her<br>condition. Patients who are on glucocorticoids, have deteriorating pulmonary functions, and are diabetic have increased risk<br>of developing aspergillosis.</p> Soumalya Pradhan Intern Srijita Karmakar Souradeep Dutta Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 5 8 Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Risk Factor for Berry Aneurysm <p>Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a genetical disorder caused by changes occurred in PKD1 and PKD2 genes and<br>is characterized mainly by the growth of multiple kidney cysts. It is progressive disorder with symptoms of high blood pressure,<br>pain in the back and the sides, and also headache. Patients having ADPKD are having a high risk of formation of intracranial<br>aneurysms. Presenting a case of ADPKD associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage with berry aneurysm and discussed about<br>the diagnostic approach with imaging modalities in this patient and the treatment.</p> Kannan Meera Devi Saketh Ramineni V Padma P C Sandhya Abhilash Nair Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 9 12 Acute Pancreatitis as a Manifestation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism: An Uncommon Association <p>The manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) as acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare entity. We report a case of a<br>55-year-old female, admitted to the intensive care unit of the general surgery department presenting with features of acute<br>abdomen with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of AP. Further evaluation revealed hypercalcemia and PHPT due to<br>parathyroid adenoma. Hypercalcemia due to PHPT plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent<br>parathyroidectomy and pathological examination of the parathyroid gland confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. After aggressive<br>medical management of AP and hypercalcemia, parathyroidectomy has been shown to improve clinical outcomes and prevent<br>further recurrences of pancreatitis.<br><br></p> Abinaya Karthikeyan S Siddarth Anantha Ramakrishnan Vijayashree Raghavan Rajesh Kanna Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 13 16 Randomized Controlled Trial of Comparison of Absorbable Extra Long-Term (Poly Hydroxy Butyrate) Suture Versus Non-Absorbable (Polypropylene) Suture for Abdominal Wall Closure <p>Introduction: In patients undergoing midline incisions, rectus sheath can be closed with continuous or interrupted suture using<br>absorbable or non-absorbable materials. Despite major improvements in antibiotics, better anesthesia, superior instruments,<br>earlier diagnosis of surgical problems, and improved techniques for post-operative vigilance, post-operative complications such as<br>incisional hernias, burst abdomen, and wound infections continue to occur, which causes significant surgical health-care problem.<br>Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the study were to continuous technique with non-absorbable sutures (polypropylene)<br>– Group I and to interrupt technique with non-absorbable suture (polypropylene) – Group II.<br>Materials and Methods: Randomized controlled, prospective study on 271 patients with primary elective midline laparotomy<br>in Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital. Patients operated from January 2018 to June 2019 are included in this study and are<br>followed up for a minimum period of 1 year.<br>Observation and Results: Group I includes 102 patients with continuous technique using non-absorbable polypropylene, Group<br>II includes 91 patients with interrupted technique using non-absorbable polypropylene, and Group III includes 78 patients with<br>continuous slowly absorbable polyhydroxybutyrate.</p> D. Sujatha M. Venkanna Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 9 4 17 22 Outcome in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury among Elderly Individuals Analytical Study in Government Rajaji Hospital Madurai <p>Background: Head injuries are among the most common types of trauma encountered in emergency department. Many<br>patients with severe brain injuries die before reaching a hospital; in fact, nearly 90% of pre hospital trauma related deaths<br>involve brain injury.<br>Objectives: Aim of the study was to study the age as an important prognostic factor in the prediction of outcome in Head<br>Injury patients, to find out the incidence and type of traumatic intracranial lesions in the elderly, to study and analyze the cause<br>of head injury among elderly patients, and to compare conservative, medical, emergency surgical treatment, and outcome.<br>Results: The poor outcome at all levels in the elderly patients, even with good Glasgow coma scale (GCS) on admission.<br>Although they have lower impact injuries and multiple injuries, their computed tomography scan show more number of intracranial<br>mass lesions, sub arachnoid hemorrhage, and midline shift. Age has been cited as a significant risk factor for the poor outcome<br>in this study.<br>Conclusion: The mortality rate increases with age mainly from the medical complications to prolonged coma. GCS is a good<br>reliable predictor of prognosis even in the 1st day after admission. If the doctors are persuaded to elicit and record them carefully,<br>predictions can be made reasonably accurate at the bed side</p> H Balasubramanian G.Rajasekaran T Gandhi Raj M Shek Mohamed Samir Khan Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 9 4 23 37 A Comparative Study of Cartridge-based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test, Histopathological Examination, and Culture and Sensitivity in Suspicious Cases of Tubercular Lymphadenopathy <p>Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important diseases in the history of mankind and remains as an extraordinary<br>burden to humanity even today. Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is the most common extrapulmonary TB which accounts for<br>25–30% of TB cases. Lymph node (LN) TB is frequent among HIV infected patients. TBLN, abdominal, or cervical is caused<br>largely due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis which was once caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In this study, we evaluated the<br>performance of cartridge-based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CB-NAAT) for the diagnosis of TBLN on histopathological<br>examination (HPE) of excisional LN biopsy and culture and sensitivity.<br>Aims and Objective: (1) The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare three modalities, that is, CBNAAT, HPE and<br>Culture and Sensitivity for diagnosis of TB in cases of lymphadenopathy, (2) sensitivity and specificity of each modality, (3) to<br>assess efficacy of CBNAAT over other modality, and (4) to identify Rifampicin-resistant cases.<br>Materials and Methods: Enlarged LN is biopsied. One part of this material was put in a sterile container and sent for CB-NAAT<br>and the other part was smeared on 2–3 slides and send for Lowenstein Jensen culture. Third part of the biopsy sample taken<br>in sterile container with 10% formalin sent for HPE.<br>Result: CBNAAT is the most sensitive technique. As the rate of drug resistant TB is in increasing trend, it is essential to use a<br>rapid method which detects M. tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance simultaneously. Thus, CBNAAT is the best method in the<br>diagnosis of TB. Earlier detection can reduce the death rate and prevent the spread of TB in the community.</p> Manish Kaushal Arvind Shukla Arvind Ghanghoria Manisankar Das Khushal Rao Hurmade Deepak Shukla Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 9 4 38 45 Role of Otoacoustic Emission Test in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients <p>Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, chronic systemic inflammatory disease affecting the small joints<br>and also has extra-articular manifestations. The early active stage of RA shows increased titer of anticyclic citrullinated<br>protein antibodies in serum. Cochlear involvement resulting in Sensorineural hearing loss is one of the extra-articular<br>manifestations in its active stage which can be identified at its subclinical level by screening with otoacoustic emission<br>(OAE) test. OAE are sounds produced by healthy hair cells of the cochlea which shows a decrease or disappearance in<br>active RA.<br>Materials and Methods: Thirty RA patients in active stage satisfying 2010 American College of Rheumatism/European League<br>Against Rheumatism and Disease Activity Score IV criteria with normal hearing ability between 25 and 45 years of age and 30<br>age- and sex-matched controls were subjected to OAE test. Both males and females were included in the study.<br>Results: Statistical analysis was done using software SPSS version 21. All controls PASSed the test indicating normal hair<br>cell function in both ears (60 ears). Thirty active stage patients were tested for both ears (60 ears). Out of 60, 19 PASSed the<br>test and 41 showed REFER indicating subclinical hair cell dysfunction.<br>Conclusion: Study revealed subclinical hair cell dysfunction in 2/3rd of cases. Thus, OAE has a key role in screening, diagnosing<br>and in preventing hearing disability in RA patients.</p> R Bhuvaneswari R Shanthimalar V Sumathi Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 9 4 46 49 Disorders among Dentists in Punjab: A Questionnaire Study <p>Background: The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in neck and back was investigated, along with the risk<br>factors in association with MSDs were evaluated among dentists in Punjab.<br>Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among dentists using self-administered, Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire.<br>Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for the data analysis. Statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 20.<br>Results: A total of 160 dentists were included in the study. More than half of the respondents had experienced symptoms in<br>the neck (67.5%), upper back (56.25%), and lower back (63.75%). The prevalence of trouble in the neck increased when the<br>number of days worked per week increased. Risk factors (P &lt; 0.05) included being &gt;40 years of age, body mass index &lt;18.5<br>as well as more than 24, no physical activity, increasing years of practice, and working with no more than one dental assistant.<br>Conclusion: There is a dire need to address and to change the way dentistry is practiced to the lower the risks to dental<br>practitioners. Dental professionals should be cautious and well trained to stop certain behaviors that can put their health at risk<br>as well as posture issues and ergonomics be inculcated in the educational system of dentistry.</p> Singh J Sharma D Gupta A Vaid P Singh R Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 9 4 50 54 Outcome of Augmented Versus Anastomotic Urethroplasty Comparison in Bulbar Stricture Urethra of 2–3 cm Length <p>Introduction: Stricture urethra, that is, fibrous narrowing of urethra is one of the challenging urethral conditions which occur<br>due to inflammation of urethra, trauma to urethra, or due to idiopathic cause. There are various methods of the treatment of<br>stricture urethra which depends on length, location, depth, and density. Because the bulbar urethra is relatively mobile, removal<br>of the narrowing of lesser size and re-join the ends over a catheter is called anastomotic urethroplasty. Longer, recurrent,<br>or complicated strictures need to be widened by cutting into the narrowed area and inserting a graft material is known as<br>augmentation urethroplasty.<br>Aim: This study aims to know outcome of augmented and anastomotic urethroplasty in strictures of 2–3 cm by retrospective<br>analysis.<br>Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study performed in 64 patients of bulbar urethral strictures equal or &lt;3 cm<br>admitted to the department of urology. It is compare of success rate, complications, and patient satisfaction in two types of<br>urethroplasties augmented versus anastomotic. Patient’s basic demographic parameters, diagnostic investigations for the<br>urethral strictures, pre-operative uroflowmetry, surgical procedures, post-operative complications, and follow-up uroflowmetry<br>and cystoscopy findings were analyzed and compared.<br>Results: Most of the patients in the age groups of 31–40 and trauma is the leading cause of stricture. Anastomotic group<br>patients stayed more in the hospital. Augmented urethroplasty had very superior success rates (100%) than to the anastomotic<br>urethroplasty (84.6%). Complications were also more in anastomotic urethroplasty.<br>Conclusion: In this study augmented, urethroplasty is superior to anastomotic urethroplasty with fewer post-operative<br>complications.</p> Arshad Hasan A S Paul Samir Swain Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 9 4 55 60 Introduction to Early Clinical Exposure as a Learning Tool in the 1st Year Medical Students <p>Objective: As medical education moves to new curricular models, including competency based education with defined<br>objectives, benchmarks and outcomes and more standardized approaches, it is important to understand and set objectives<br>for early clinical exposure.<br>Method: The study was conducted in MGM Medical College, Jamshedpur in October, 2019. 50 students participated with their<br>consent. The department faculty was sensitized to ECE, and the feedback questionnaire was approved by them.<br>Result: ECE is associated with better co-relation clinically (52%), building concept (26%), making subject interesting(48%),<br>retention (26%) and interactive (26%).<br>Conclusion: It can be summarized that teaching physiology in clinical context is the need of the hour.</p> Kumari Rekha Neelam Choudhary Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 9 4 61 63 Empathy and its Correlates among Undergraduate Medical Students at a Medical College in India <p>Introduction: Empathy is a highly desirable professional trait, since empathic communication skills promote patient satisfaction,<br>establish trust, reduce anxiety, increase adherence to treatment regimens, improve health outcomes, as well as decreasing the<br>likelihood of malpractice suits. It is beneficial to the physician as well, cognitively defined empathy can lead to personal growth,<br>career satisfaction resulting from the optimal clinical outcomes.<br>Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess empathy level of medical students and its correlates.<br>Methodology: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted among undergraduate medical students of Veer Chandra<br>Singh Garhwali Government Institute of Medical Science and Research, Srinagar, Uttarakhand, with a survey tool employing<br>Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSE-S). JSE-S comprising certain details such as age, gender, year of medical school,<br>specialty of choice, and an inventory of 20 questions half of which are negatively phrased. The students recorded their response<br>on a scale of 1 of the 7, provided on a Likert scale in response to each item (1 = strongly disagree and 7 = strongly agree).<br>Scale is reversed (that is, 1 = strongly agree and 7 = strongly disagree) for the negatively phrased items.<br>Results: The mean empathy score among males was 103.4 (standard deviation [SD] – 17.33), and among females, it was<br>109.4 (SD – 15.37). In our study, this difference was found to statistically significant. A majority of students reported having<br>made the decision to enter the medical profession on their own accord, n = 355 (68.5%). For the rest, it was either their family<br>member’s decision or a combined decision, n = 66, 12.7% and n = 97, 18.7%, respectively. A majority of students, n = 360,<br>69.5%, preferred to join a medical specialty involving direct patient contact.<br>Conclusion: The empathy score varied with gender, with a higher mean score for females. It was also more for those satisfied<br>with their career choice compared to those who were unsatisfied. Semester wise, there was no increasing or decreasing pattern<br>of scores and was found to be variable. An impetus for empathy was provided with the introduction of foundation course for<br>medical students where life skills education is being imparted.</p> Tumul Nandan Rudresh Negi Dibyanshu Singh Amit Kumar Mehto Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 64 68 Various Commercially Available Flexible Denture Base Materials at Various Time Intervals – An In Vitro Study <p>methacrylate) is still being used for the fabrication of dentures. Flexible denture base materials are the best alternative to<br>conventionally used denture base resins, which provide excellent aesthetics, comfort, and flexibility.<br>Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare flexural strength, color stability, surface roughness, and weight change<br>of four commercially available flexible denture base materials immersed in artificial saliva for various time intervals.<br>Materials and Methods: Stainless steel die prepared with the dimension 40 mm × 10 mm × 3 mm. One hundred and twenty<br>samples were prepared and divided into four groups based on the materials. Materials used are Valplast, Breflex, TCS<br>unbreakable, and Iflex. Initial measurements were recorded for color stability, surface roughness, and water sorption. For flexural<br>strength, the initial measurements were taken as control. Samples were stored in artificial saliva for 1 month and 3 months,<br>respectively, and final measurements were noted. Three-point bend test was done in universal testing machine for flexural<br>strength; color stability with Vita easy shade spectrophotometer. Surface roughness with profilometer and the weight change<br>was evaluated using an analytical balance.<br>Results: A statistically significant difference was seen (P &lt; 0.01) between Valplast, Breflex, TCS, and Iflex for flexural strength,<br>color stability, surface roughness, and weight change with significant difference between time intervals. An increase in surface<br>roughness and weight with increased immersion from 1 month to 3 months was observed whereas flexural strength and color<br>stability decreased from 1 month and 3 months.<br>Conclusion: Increase in immersion time increases the surface roughness, weight and decreases the color stability and flexural<br>strength of Valplast, Breflex, TCS, and Iflex. Better properties were exhibited by Breflex after 1 month and 3 months of immersion<br>in artificial saliva than Valpalst, TCS, and Iflex.</p> K Srinivas D Hima Mounika Y Ravi Shankar M Hari Krishna T Satyendra Kumar R Sunitha Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 69 77 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Biomedical Waste Management among Dentists <p>Background: With increase in number of dental clinics every year, biomedical waste (BMW) production increases accordingly.<br>Management of these wastes is a major part of clinical practice.<br>Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of BMW management among<br>dental students and practitioners.<br>Materials and Methods: This study involved 105 participants from undergraduates to private practitioners. The self-structured<br>questionnaire survey comprised 30 questions and it was conducted online. The data collected were transferred to version 20<br>SPSS software for statistical analysis.<br>Results: This study shows that about 60–80% of participants were aware of different categories of waste segregation, steps<br>in waste disposal and they also practice it. Around 70% of them practice the correct method for mercury disposal and 84% in<br>disposal of sharp needles. The major concern is about radiological waste disposal. Only 34% knew about desilvering of fixer<br>solution and 24% about recycling lead. More than 80% of the participants propose for proper training of the staffs handling<br>BMWs.<br>Conclusion: In this study, the postgraduates and interns had more awareness compared to the undergraduate students. There<br>is a lot of inadequacy in knowledge and practice which can be rectified from proper education and training at their early days<br>of clinical practice.</p> Priya Ramani V R Nithya B Sreeja Beno Gershon Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 78 81 Stress-related Orofacial Diseases in Information Technology Professionals <p>Introduction: Stress is believed to have major impact on the physical well-being of the individual and it does not spare the oral<br>cavity as well. These stress-induced orofacial disorders have various manifestations and are more prevalent in professionals<br>working in information technology (IT) field due to prolonged working hours and unreasonable deadlines.<br>Aim: This study aims to determine the prevalence of stress and stress-related orofacial diseases among the IT professionals.<br>Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried among 109 IT professionals working in a private firm after<br>obtaining clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee and concerned authorities. It is performed by history taking using<br>a questionnaire based on perceived stress scale that had 14 questions and clinical examination. The data collected were<br>statistically evaluated.<br>Results: Among the 109 participants, 88 were male and 21 were female. This study revealed that they were stressed due to<br>the job and that xerostomia and aphthous ulcer were more prevalent (22.9%) in IT professionals followed by bruxism, burning<br>mouth syndrome, and temporomandibular joint disorders</p> J Sreedevi Hashmath Ara Priya Ramani P S Gayathri M Vidyasri Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 82 85 International Journal of Scientific Study | July 2021 | Vol 9 | Issue 4 86 Comparative Study to Find Out the Role of Nutritional Factors in Hair Growth between Tribal and Semi-Urban Population <p>Introduction: Hair is an important appendageal structure in the skin and hair growth is influenced by various factors like<br>nutritional, hormonal, psychosocial and genetic factors. All these factors affect hair growth by altering the microenvironment of<br>hair follicle which inturn results in changes in the hair cycle.<br>Materials and Methods: Our study was aimed to determine the role of nutritional factors such as Zinc, Iron, Calcium and<br>Protein in promoting hair growth and decreasing chronic hair loss in tribal and semiurban population. A set of questionnaire<br>were used to analyse the role of life style, nature of work and stress factors in influencing hair fall. The serum values of zinc,<br>iron, calcium and protein were measured for each individual in both tribal and semiurban population and the mean value of<br>all the four nutritional parameters were calculated separately and the results were analysed.<br>Results: The mean serum values of zinc, calcium and protein were almost similar in both tribal and urban people except<br>serum ferritin value which was more in tribal people. We compared the role of stress influencing hair cycle in semiurban and<br>tribal groups by analyzing the questionnaire.<br>Conclusion: The lifestyle without stress, good iron reserve with high ferritin level, usage of natural hair care products and<br>genetic factors could be the reason for healthy hair growth in tribal population. Reduction of stress factors in daily life, adequate<br>sleep and improving nutritional status may help to reduce hair fall in semiurban and urban population.</p> M Aravind C Chandrakala Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 86 89 Impact of Different Endodontic Sealers on Retentive Strength of Fiber Posts – An In Vitro Study <p>Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two different root canal sealers in relation to the retention of the<br>prefabricated fiber posts.<br>Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were prepared and randomly divided into two<br>groups. In Group 1, eugenol-based sealer was used while in Group 2, a resin-based root canal sealer was used. Prefabricated<br>fiber posts were luted into the prepared post-spaces with the same composite resin cement in both the groups. After calculating<br>the pullout forces required for dislodgment of posts post-spaces, the data were recorded and statistically analyzed.<br>Results: The resin-based root canal sealer group had significantly greater retentive strengths for the posts as compared to<br>eugenol-based sealers group (P &gt; 0.0001).<br>Conclusion: The retentive strength for prefabricated fiber posts luted with resin cement was much more than those luted with<br>eugenol-based sealers. This was attributed to the different chemical composition of the two dealers.</p> Rachna Dhani Shamim Anjum Kanchan Bhagat Ankush Jasrotia Azhar Malik Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 90 92 Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage Outcome at Tertiary Care Centre of North India <p>Aims: The aim of this study is to know the feasibility and outcome of ultrasound-guided percutaneous transhepatic biliary<br>drainage (PTBD) at tertiary care center of North India.<br>Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study conducted on patients affected by biliary tree obstruction<br>with jaundice referred to department of radiodiagnosis for management of obstructive jaundice. Procedure (PTBD) has been<br>performed by single step puncturing the biliary system under ultrasound guidance.<br>Results: 110 patients affected by biliary tree obstruction were included in this study. The biliary obstruction was malignant<br>in 102 and benign in eight cases. Technical success considered as positioning of a drainage tube into the biliary tree by only<br>ultrasound guidance and single step puncture was 100%.<br>Conclusions: Only ultrasound guidance to access the biliary tree and single step puncture of bile duct for PTBD was a safe,<br>low cost, and effective technique for the management of obstructive biliary pathology.</p> Umakant Prasad Deepak Kumar Amit Kumar Rakesh Kumar Singh Sanjay Kumar Suman Pramita Kumari Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 93 99 Perspective Study of Elevated First Trimester C-reactive Protein as Predictor of Gestational Diabetes in South Karnataka Population: A Retrospective Study <p>Background: The C-reactive protein (CRP) derived from the liver is sensitive and systemic biomarker of inflammation and has<br>been associated with increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.<br>Materials and Methods: Ninety-two pregnant women having gestational diabetes of the first trimester and same number of<br>normal pregnant women of controlled group were studied. Blood sugar (fasting and postprandial) and CRP, body mass index<br>(BMI), age, and period of gestation/weeks of gestation were compared in both groups.<br>Results: The BMI of gestational diabetes group was 26.05 (SD ± 3.40) and 22.80 (SD ± 2.14), t-test was 7.75, and P-value<br>was highly significant. Laboratory findings, blood glucose (fasting and post-meal), and CRP (mg/l) were higher in gestation<br>diabetes and P-values were highly significant (P &lt; 0.00). CRP values were more or less constant in blood glucose (fasting and<br>post-meal) hence P-value was insignificant (P &gt; 0.98).<br>Conclusion: CRP values were higher in gestational diabetes due to inflammation and oxidative stress. These finding are<br>important for obstetrics and gynecologist to treat such patient efficiently to prevent morbidity and mortality of fetus and<br>mother too.</p> B S Girijamma Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 100 103 Demographic and Clinical Profile of Celiac Disease in Kashmiri Children: An Observational Study <p>Introduction: Celiac disease is a common disorder in North India. No study is available regarding its clinicopathological<br>profile in Kashmiri children. Kashmir valley is abode to three different ethnicities principally constituted by Kashmiris and small<br>population of Pahari and Gujjar.<br>Aims and Objective: This study aims to study demographic and clinical profile of celiac disease in Kashmiri children.<br>Materials and Methods: The current study is hospital-based descriptive observational study conducted over 11/2 year. All patients<br>in the age group of 6 months–12 years presenting with chronic diarrhea and unexplained failure to thrive were evaluated for<br>celiac disease. A total of 62 patients were evaluated during the study period and 12 came positive for celiac disease (19%).<br>Results: Mean age of presentation is 6 years. Regarding principal modes of presentation, chronic diarrhea is observed in<br>10 (83%), unexplained failure to thrive 2 (16%), short stature 4 (33%), 7 out of 12 with wasting (58%), anemia 6 (50%), electrolyte<br>disturbance like hypokalemia in 7 (58%), with severe hypokalemia (k+&lt;2) in three patients, and isolated hypertransaminasemia<br>in 4 (33%). Majority of the patients are Pahari/Gujjar (66%) despite constituting very little of whole population. This means that<br>a case of chronic diarrhea and unexplained failure to thrive is more likely to be celiac if belonging to this section of society.<br>Conclusion: Celiac disease is well present in Kashmiri children with case positivity rate among chronic diarrhea and unexplained<br>failure to thrive comparable to rest of North India and clinical spectrum shows malnutrition, anemia, and dyselectrolytemia in<br>majority of patients. Its prevalence varies between different ethnic groups being more in Pahari and Gujjar children as compared<br>to ethnic Kashmiri population.</p> Audil Mateen Rajnesh Kumar Ifra Rasool Mohammad Irfan Dar Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 104 107 Development and Evaluation of Gastroretentive Floating Matrix Tablets of Quetiapine Fumarate <p>Introduction: The present study was carried out to evaluate gastroretentive floating matrix tablets of Quetiapine Fumarate<br>(QFR) to reduce the dose frequency and higher bioavailability.<br>Materials and Methods: Floating matrix tablets of QFR were prepared by employing gel-forming polymers such as hydroxypropyl<br>methylcellulose (HPMC) (K100M, K15M), methyl cellulose (MC), and xanthan gum (XG). The formulations were evaluated for<br>various physicochemical characteristics (weight, thickness, hardness, and diameter), drug and polymers compatibility, in vitro<br>buoyancy, swelling index (SI), in vitro drug release characterization, and in vivo X-ray studies.<br>Results: The differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed no interaction between the drug and polymers. All the<br>physicochemical properties of the developed formulations were found within the specified limits. Formulation containing HPMC<br>K100M and a higher concentration of MC floated immediately, followed by formulations with HPMC K15M. The SI was directly<br>associated with polymers concentrations (HPMC K100M, HPMC K15M and XG). The in vitro release studies showed that the<br>formulation F1 (HPMC K100M 80%) sustained the drug release (101.01%) for about 12 h. All the formulations followed zeroorder<br>kinetics and non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. In vivo X-ray studies of the selected formulation F1 (HPMC K100M 80%)<br>showed gastric retention time of about 12 h.<br>Conclusion: The present study results indicated a successful approach to achieve controlled release of QFR in the stomach<br>for 12 h. Further studies can be pursued to confirm improve the bioavailability of the QFR from the present formulation</p> A Francis Raj A Nandhini P Manikandan K Christin Selvaraj Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 108 114 Diabetic Foot: A Clinical Study <p>Introduction: Diabetic foot complications remain major medical, social, economic problems that are seen in all types if diabetes<br>in every country; however, the reported frequencies of amputation and ulceration vary considerably as a consequence of<br>different diagnostic criteria used.<br>Aim: The aim of the study was to study the etiology, presentation, and the management of diabetic foot ulcers to study the<br>prognostic factors of diabetic foot in relation to plan of treatment and to increase the meager awareness of diabetic foot problems.<br>Materials and Methods: In this case study, 50 patients were studied. This study was conducted from September 2017 to<br>November 2019.The protocol for the study was approved both by the Department of General Surgery, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial<br>hospital, Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal.<br>Results: Findings were tabulated according to age and other clinical aspects.<br>Conclusion: Age, gender, duration of diabetes, mode of treatment of diabetes, and tobacco smoking did influence whether or<br>not a diabetic with a foot lesion will have major amputation, an unsatisfactory outcome of primary treatment, prolonged hospital<br>stay or will die Furthermore, the presence of foot infections alone, microangiopathy (nephropathy, retinopathy), foot ischemia<br>alone or neuropathy alone had no relationship to poor prognostic indices.</p> Mohammed Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 116 120 Comparison of Efficacy of Labetalol versus Alphamethyldopa in the Management of Preeclampsia <p>risk of adverse outcomes. Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder of unknown etiology, unique to pregnancy characterized by<br>the occurrence of gestational hypertension along with proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy in a previously normotensive<br>and non-proteinuric patient.<br>Aim: The aim of the study was to study the efficacy of oral labetalol versus oral Alpha-methyldopa in the management of<br>preeclampsia.<br>Methods: Hundred patients included in this study were assigned to two groups randomly of 50 patients in each group. Group 1:<br>Tablet Alpha-methyldopa (Aldomet) 250 mg was given thrice daily, and Group 2: Tablet Labetalol 100 mg was given twice daily.<br>Blood pressure (BP) and proteinuria were recorded every 12th h.<br>Results: Significant fall in the diastolic BP after 48 h occurred only in the labetalol group (P = 0.007). In the Alpha-methyldopa<br>group, there was a significant need to increase the drug dose after 48 h (P = 0.043). There appears to be no significant difference<br>in induction rate between the two groups (P = 0.585). The mean birth weight was significantly higher (P = 0.00) in the labetalol<br>group (3.11 kg) compared to the alpha methyldopa group (2.67 kg). There was no significant difference in the Appearance,<br>Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration scores (P = 0.090) and rate of neonatal admissions (P = 0.240) in both groups.<br>Conclusion: Labetalol controls systolic and diastolic BP more rapidly and effectively than methyldopa. The safety profile and<br>adverse effects of Labetalol and Methyldopa are similar to each other.</p> B Preethi B Sindhuja Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 121 124 Clinical Study of Chronic Lower Limb Ischemia and Correlation with Color Doppler Scan <p>Introduction: Chronic lower limb ischemia of the lower limb is a widely spread disease at the present time. It is a progressive<br>disease and mainly comprises of atherosclerosis and Buerger’s disease. Chronic critical limb ischemia is defined not only by<br>the clinical presentation but also by an objective measurement of impaired blood flow using radiological investigations like<br>color Doppler.<br>Aim: The aim of the study was to clinically evaluate patients of chronic lower limb ischemia and correlate the clinical findings<br>with color Doppler study.<br>Materials and Methods: This study includes 50 patients admitted at Index Medical College, Indore with symptoms of chronic<br>lower limb ischemia. Data were collected on basis of detailed history, clinical examination and color Doppler ultrasound findings.<br>Results: Out of the 50 patients observed the clinical diagnosis showed 24 patients as atherosclerosis and 26 patients as<br>Buerger’s disease. While color Doppler diagnosis revealed 26 patients as atherosclerosis and 24 patients to be Buerger’s disease.<br>Conclusion: Current study establishes a strong correlation between diagnosis made on clinical basis and color Doppler findings</p> Naveen Kumar Sharma Rahul Jain Arpit Bandi Kaustubh Singh Bhadauriya Abhinav Rathi Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 124 127 Comparative Study of Intrathecal 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine with Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl for Lower Abdominal Surgeries: A Randomized Double-blind Clinical Trial <p>Background: In this modern year, the intrathecal adjuvants use has gained good acceptance in the field of anesthesiology. The<br>spinal anesthesia quality is very much improved with addition of opioids and other drugs and as we know, no drug is without<br>side effects. Spinal block has rapid onset, lower risk of infection rate and is very cost effective. However, post-operative pain<br>is a very significant problem as the drugs used have limited duration of action. Hence, the administration of analgesics plays<br>a key role postoperatively. To increase the duration and to reduce side effects, various local anesthetics and analgesics are<br>used in combination. Some of the drugs have been used as adjuvants in spinal anesthesia to prolong intra- and post-operative<br>analgesia which includes opioids, α2 agonists, vasoconstrictors, and other drugs.<br>Aim of the Study: The aim of the current study is to compare the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl added to intrathecal<br>bupivacaine to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, post-operative analgesia, hemodynamic effects,<br>and adverse effects of either drug in lower abdominal surgeries.<br>Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with the American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I and II posted for lower abdominal<br>surgeries were allocated to two groups randomly (30 patients each): Group D received 2.5 ml 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and<br>5 μg of dexmedetomidine intrathecally and Group F received 2.5 ml 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 25 μg of fentanyl intrathecally.<br>Results: Patients in Group F had faster onset of sensory block and motor block than Group D (P = 0.000). Patients in Group D<br>had significantly longer duration of motor and sensory blockade as compared to those in Group F (P = 0.000). Post-operative<br>analgesia was significantly longer in Group D than Group F (P = 0.000). Incidence of side effects among the two groups was<br>not statistically significant.<br>Conclusions: Fentanyl has its own benefits like faster onset compared with dexmedetomidine, but prolonged duration of motor<br>and sensory blockade with post-operative analgesia was seen with dexmedetomidine without significant side effects.</p> Pandellapalli Vasudeva Sreekanth Diapule Sandeep Kumar S V Lakshmi Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 129 134 Efficacy of Superoxide Solution (Oxum) as Compared to Povidone-iodine in Healing of Chronic Ulcers <p>Background: Wound healing is a dynamic and complex process. The main purpose of wound dressings is to provide the suitable<br>environment for healing. Various treatment modalities have been discovered over the years in the form of different types of<br>wound dressings. As wounds are great burdens on the health-care system contributing to substantial mortality, morbidity and<br>costs hence the need for study.<br>Materials and Methods: The present study is a single-center, prospective, clinical trial comparing oxum (superoxidized water)<br>and betadine as a topical treatment of chronic wounds conducted in 100 Indian patients, with 50 patients in each group. All<br>patients underwent daily dressing, debridement when needed and appropriate antibiotics. Clinical findings were recorded on<br>day 1, 5, 7, 12, and 21 and compared.<br>Results: Reduction in wound size in oxum group was more as compared to betadine, however, it was not significant on day<br>5, 7, and 12 but results were significant for day 21. Rate of secondary infection for Group A was 22.22% and Group B was<br>38.44%. Appearance of granulation tissue and epithelization was earlier in Group A as compared to Group B. At day 12 in<br>Group A, 96% of patients developed granulation, and in Group B, 56% of patients had granulation. At day 12 in Group A, 68%<br>of patients had epithelization, and in Group B, 36% of patients had epithelization. Average duration of hospital stay for Group A<br>was 19.84 days with SD of 16.041 while average hospital stay time for Group B was 25.31 with ±6.129. No adverse reaction<br>was seen in either group.<br>Conclusion: In the management of lower limb ulcer, a superoxide solution (SOS) debrides necrotic tissue, reduces microbial<br>load, promotes granulation, and decreases the healing time, without damaging the normal tissue or complications. Those<br>patients, who have small superficial ulcers or not fit for definite surgery, can be managed conservatively with SOS only. Hence,<br>SOS is safe, more effective, and efficacious as compared to povidone-iodine for ulcer management.</p> Rahul Jain Amit Katlana Arpit Bandi Kaustubh Singh Bhadauriya Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 135 138 Correlation of Bone Marrow Aspiration, Trephine Biopsy, and Imprint Cytology in Pancytopenia/ Bicytopenia Cases in Resource-Limited Area <p>Context: Bone marrow aspiration is a simple method to study hematopoietic disorders whereas trephine biopsy is of greater<br>value in assessing large piece of marrow. At the same time, imprint is helpful in getting morphological details of individual cell.<br>Aims: The aim of the present study was to correlate the findings of bone marrow aspirate, bone marrow biopsy (BMB), and<br>touch imprints in the diagnosis of pancytopenia/bicytopenia.<br>Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study.<br>Subjects and Methods: This 2-year cross-sectional study of 50 cases from year 2017 to 2019 is conducted in the Department<br>of Pathology in GMC, Haldwani. The clinical features of pancytopenia/bicytopenia were noted. Bone marrow aspiration (BMA)<br>along with bone marrow imprint (BMI) was evaluated and BMB was performed in all cases. BMA and imprint smears were stained<br>with Leishman stain and biopsy section was stained with H.E., PAS, and reticulin stain. Findings were studied and analyzed.<br>Statistical Analysis Used: All the data were compiled and entered into MS Excel. Statistical analysis was performed using<br>software SPSS‑20.<br>Results: In all 50 cases, definite diagnosis was made on BMB and strong positive correlation was seen between BMA, BMI,<br>and BMB (P &lt; 0.00001). Furthermore, 100% correlation was seen in combined nutritional anemia, immune thrombocytopenic<br>purpura, and metastasis; whereas 82.6% correlation was seen in megaloblastic anemia, 55.6% in reactive marrow, and 50%<br>in acute leukemia.<br>Conclusions: The present study concludes that BMA and BMI give good cytomorphological details and take lesser time in<br>reporting as compared to BMB. BMB whereas is useful for assessment of cellularity, topography, and fibrosis. BMA alone is<br>usually sufficient to diagnose nutritional anemia, metastasis, and immune thrombocytopenia whereas trephine biopsy is the<br>sole diagnostic tool in myelofibrosis, granulomatous disease, and aplastic anemia.</p> Bhagyashree Singh Usha Joshi Ankit Kaushik Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 139 143 The Interruption of Administering Routine Measles Vaccine in Nepal: A Point of Contention During and Post the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic? <p>The interruption of administering routine measles vaccinations has put a significant strain on Nepal’s already overburdened<br>health system. Over five significant measles outbreaks have occurred in Nepal since the country’s nationwide lockdown began,<br>including in Kathmandu, the Capital. The interruption of immunization programs, as well as a drop in the number of confirmed<br>cases, may have a devastating effect in the coming days, placing the target of eliminating measles by 2023 in jeopardy. In this<br>review, we weigh the long-term impact on public health and consequences of disrupting the national immunization program<br>against staying at home to flatten the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surge curve. We speculate that during and post<br>the COVID-19 pandemic; the measles endemic is imminent, particularly due to socioeconomic gaps and unhygienic measures.<br><br></p> Neela Sunuwar Santosh Katuwal Sudeep Yadav Anu Radha Twayana Swotantra Gautam Pawan Upadhyaya Zouina Sarfraz Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 4 144 148