Sacral Index: Application in Sex Determination of Sacrum

  • Gurdeep Singh Bindra Professor, Department of Anatomy
  • Ajay Mohan Professor, Department of Physiology
Keywords: Maximum sacral breadth, Maximum sacral length, Sacrum, Sacral index


Introduction: Sacrum is often considered while dealing with sex determination of human skeletal remains.
Objective: The study was been carried out with the objective to study the sex-differences using skeletal material and sacral
index as criteria and to comparative fi ndings with different races.
Materials and Methods: Totally, 60 adult sacrum bones (30 adult male and 30 adult female) were studied. Measurements of
maximum length and maximum breadth of sacrum were taken with sliding vernier calipers.
Results: The mean maximum length of the sacrum was greater in males (106.85) than in females (90.89), and the
difference of mean lengths was statistically signifi cant. But the difference was not signifi cant for mean maximum sacral
breadth (male - 108.24, female - 106.87). Mean sacral index in females was greater (117.56) as compared to that in males
(101.3). Present study showed that according to sacral index method, 66.6% of male and 70% of female sacrum bones
were identifi ed reliably.
Conclusion: Sacral index is a reliable criterion for differentiation between sex of sacrum that is useful for forensic and
anthropological investigations

Author Biographies

Gurdeep Singh Bindra, Professor, Department of Anatomy

Gold Field Institute of Medical Science and Research, Ballabgarh, Faridabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

Ajay Mohan, Professor, Department of Physiology

Gold Field Institute of Medical Science and Research, Ballabgarh, Faridabad, Uttar Pradesh, India


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